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Table 1 Coding and descriptions of the items in the questionnaire measured on a Likert scale

From: Travelers’ attitude towards carpooling in Islamabad

Construct Coding Variable description Source
Motives for carpooling M1 I will prefer carpooling service for short trips (within Islamabad).  
M2 I will prefer carpooling service for long trips (outside Islamabad).  
M3 I will prefer carpooling service shared with 1–2 persons. [49]
M4 I will prefer carpooling service shared with 3–4 persons. [49]
M5 I will prefer carpooling service if 25–50% cost reduction occurs. [49]
M6 I will prefer carpooling service if more than 50% cost reduction occurs. [49]
M7 I will prefer carpooling service with persons of opposite gender. [50]
Socioeconomic and environmental benefits B1 Carpooling can save my money for fueling. [49]
B2 Carpooling can save travel time if H.O.V lanes are provided. [32]
B3 Carpooling can reduce impacts on the environment. [32]
B4 Carpooling can reduce traffic congestion. [51]
B5 Carpooling can reduce energy consumption. [49]
B6 Carpooling can reduce stress for self-driving and keeping personal cars.  
B7 Carpooling can reduce maintenance costs of personal cars. [52]
Intentions to shift to carpooling service I will shift to carpooling service.  
I1 If carpooling costs are lower.  
I2 Because I feel safe with another person driving. [52]
I3 If H.O.V lanes are provided. [49]
I4 If preference is given to pooled vehicles in parking lots. [32]
I5 If I get free parking. [49]
I6 If carpooling service is more comfortable. [51]
Constraints for carpooling I will prefer to use my own car.  
C1 Because not knowing who my fellow passenger might be. [49]
C2 Because I do not want to depend on another person. [28]
C3 Because I do not want to give out my phone number to an unknown person. [49]
C4 Because of privacy. [49]
C5 Because carpooling can restrict my freedom. [49]
Partner’s acquaintance Aq1 Carpooling with one known man. [28]
Aq2 Carpooling with one known woman. [28]
Aq3 Carpooling with two known persons. [28]
Aq4 Carpooling with three known persons. [28]
Stranger partners S1 Carpooling with one unknown man. [28]
S2 Carpooling with one unknown woman. [28]
S3 Carpooling with two unknown persons. [28]
S4 Carpooling with three unknown persons. [28]
S5 Carpooling with one known and one unknown person. [28]
S6 Carpooling with one known and two unknown persons. [28]
  1. All these parameters are measured on a Likert scale from 1 to 5, i.e., 1, strongly disagree; 2, disagree; 3, neutral; 4, agree; 5, strongly agree