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Table 1 The contribution of SWM on SDGs achievement [the author]

From: Achieving sustainable development goals from the perspective of solid waste management plans

SDGs [18] Specific target [18] SWM plans

Goal 1: No poverty
1-1 Eradicate extreme poverty for all people everywhere Incorporating the waste pickers and improving their economic conditions has improved poverty rates in the developing world.
1-2 Reduce at least by half the proportion of men, women, and children of all ages living in poverty Recycling and reuse of solid waste have great potential to create jobs and employment opportunities.

Goal 2: Zero hunger
2-1 End hunger and ensure access by all people, in particular, the poor and people in vulnerable situations, including infants, to safe, nutritious, and sufficient food all year round Separating food waste and managing food waste supports providing a measure of food for the poor and vulnerable groups, thus supporting the reduction of hungry populations.
2-3 Double the agricultural productivity and incomes of small-scale food producers, in particular, women, indigenous peoples, family farmers Recycling of organic solid waste produces very good organic fertilizers, increases the chances of doubling agricultural productivity, and enhances the success of agricultural practices for small food producers.

Goal 3: Good health and well-being
3-1 Reduce the global maternal mortality ratio Reducing the sorting processes in the informal system by the denomination of pregnant and postpartum women reduces the maternal mortality rates.
3-2 End preventable deaths of newborns and children under 5 years of age, with all countries Preventing waste sorting processes in informal solid waste communities that take place indoors and in the streets, reducing the risk of disease exposure for children and infants.
3-3 End the epidemics of AIDS and combat hepatitis, water-borne diseases, and other communicable diseases Follow the proper management of medical waste disposal inside the health facilities and use protectors for the hands to prevent injuries, transmission of diseases, and hepatitis during the collection and sorting processes.
Proper handling of solid waste and disposal methods supports a healthy, disease-free environment.

Goal 4: Quality education
4-1 Ensure that all girls and boys complete free, equitable, and quality primary and secondary education Reducing child labor, as children are part of the informal solid waste system, which increases illiteracy and school dropout rates.
4-3 Ensure equal access for all women and men to affordable and quality technical, vocational and tertiary education Providing technical and vocational education related to the solid waste management system supports school enrollment and learning opportunities for garbage collectors communities.
4-4 Increase the number of youth and adults who have relevant skills, including technical and vocational skills, for employment, decent jobs, and entrepreneurship

Goal 5: Gender equality
5-1 End all forms of discrimination against all women and girls everywhere Reducing the exploitation of women in the informal system, as they play a major role in the waste sorting stage, making them more vulnerable to diseases.
5-5 Ensure women’s full and effective participation and equal opportunities
5-6 Ensure universal access to reproductive health and reproductive rights as agreed
Providing healthy proper job opportunities based on solid waste recycling directed at women and girls.

Goal 6: Clean water
6-3 Improve water quality by reducing pollution and minimizing the release of hazardous chemicals and materials Reducing pollution caused by dumping plastic and hazardous wastes into or near waterways. Increases access to higher quality water.

Goal 7: Affordable and reliable energy
7-1 Ensure universal access to affordable and reliable energy services
7-2 Increase substantially the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix
The use of solid waste in energy production processes supports the provision of a new and affordable source of energy.

Goal 8: Decent work and economic growth
8-1 Sustain per capita economic growth in accordance with national circumstances
8-3 Promote development-oriented policies that support productive activities and decent job creation and encourage the formalization and growth of micro-, small-, and medium-sized enterprises
Merging the informal SWM system into the formal system ensures an improvement in the informal work environment and supports economic growth opportunities.
8-2 Achieve higher levels of economic productivity through a focus on high value-added and labor-intensive sectors Recycling technology provides more opportunities for higher levels of economic productivity.

Goal 9: Industry and innovation
9-2 Promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and significantly raise the industry’s share of employment Recycling material processes in SWM promotes creating opportunities for unlimited industries and small projects that stimulate innovation processes in various fields of industry

Goal 10: Reduce inequalities
10-2 Empower and promote the social and economic inclusion of all The merge between the formal and informal SWM sectors promotes social and economic inclusion and reduces inequality in developing countries

Goal 11: Sustainable cities and communities
11-1 Ensure access for all to adequate, safe, and affordable housing and basic services and upgrade slums Integrated and sustainable solid waste management raises the value of indicators of quality of life for cities and maintains the sustainability of local communities.
11-6 Reduce the adverse per capita environmental impact of cities, including municipal waste management An integrated solid waste management system reduces the individual negative environmental impacts of cities.
11-7 Provide universal access to safe, inclusive, and accessible green and public spaces Full landfill sites could be converted into green spaces and public places.

Goal 12: Responsible consumption and production
12-1 Implement the 10-year framework of programs on sustainable consumption and production
12-2 Achieve the sustainable management and efficient use of natural resources
Adopting the green circular economy model ensures the sustainability of responsible consumption and production patterns.
12-5 Substantially reduce waste generation through prevention, reduction, recycling, and reuse The efficient orientation of 5Rs greatly reduces waste production.
12-6 Encourage companies to adopt sustainable practices Adopting the extended producer responsibility policy.

Goal 13: Climate action
13-2 Integrate climate change measures into national policies, strategies, and planning Safe disposal of solid waste and the reduction of garbage open burning and its emitting rates of pollution and greenhouse gasses are among the most important measures related to climate change.

Goal 14: Life below water
14-1 Prevent and significantly reduce marine pollution of all kinds Reducing pollution resulting from dumping solid waste into water bodies, especially plastic, supports the chances of preserving the life of marine organisms underwater.
14-3 Minimize and address the impacts of ocean acidification Environmentally sound management of solid waste reduces the spread of carbon dioxide, which absorbs about a quarter of its emissions by the oceans and increases their acidification.

Goal 15: Life on land
15-1 Ensure the conservation, restoration, and sustainable use of terrestrial and inland freshwater ecosystems and their services
15-9 Integrate ecosystem values into national and local planning and development processes
The safe disposal of solid waste is one of the aspects of preserving the ecosystems on Earth.
15-3 Restore degraded land and strive to achieve a land degradation-neutral world Integrated and sustainable SWM reducing the amount of waste and landfill areas, that is reduction of the need for land utilized for the sanitary burying of waste.

Goal 16: Peace, justice, and institutions
16-6 Develop effective, accountable, and transparent institutions at all levels SWM within a clear institutional framework that supports the organization of the relationship between the central authority and local administrations; ensure responsive, inclusive, participatory, and representative decision-making at all levels; and provide tools and methods of transparency, accountability, and monitoring of the service delivery process.
16-7 Ensure responsive, inclusive, participatory, and representative decision-making at all levels

Goal 17: Partnerships for the goals
17-17 Encourage and promote effective public, public-private, and civil society partnerships The integrated and sustainable SWM system depends on the participation of multiple parties, such as the formal private sector, the informal sector, the local community, and donors. This is to support the system financially and technically.