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Table 8 Thematic analysis and extraction of possible themes

From: Towards forming a socio-ecological action model for urban open spaces’ design in New Cairo, Egypt

Thematic analysis: physical, social and ecological themes extraction
Description source Description Interpretation Possible themes by Delphi
1 Dunnett, 2002 “some active recreation, such as jogging, may take place in an open space as an individual activity or in small groups, walking may be undertaken by individuals or in familial or friendship groups….organised walking groups…..‘Walking for health’ schemes.” There is a relation between the existence of an open space with activities and recreation; also these activities create opportunities for group interaction. *Direct relation between open spaces and active recreation. *Direct relation between activities and group membership. *Indirect relation between open spaces and group membership.
“These events may be organised by community groups…….These events help to enhance the value that a community attributes to its urban open spaces….. Local authorities do keep records of events and these, however, reveal that many events have a focus for a particular cultural or religious group.....mental restoration or catching up with community news from other adults and children met along the way.” There is an association between events organization and the community value for an open space also these events play role in cultural exposure, mental restoration, and human interaction. *Direct relation between community events and space attachment. *Direct relation between community events and mental restoration, cultural representation, human interaction.
2 Greenhalgh and Worpole, 1995 “Taking children to play is one of the main reasons for visiting urban open spaces for many people…” Existence of urban open spaces such as urban parks and playing fields is associated with physical activities such as children’s play. *Direct relation between green infra-structure and physical activities.
3 Research on children by Taylor, 1998 “Outdoor play is shown to be important for social development including collaborative skills, negotiating skills, confrontation and resolution of emotional crises, management of conflicts and development of moral understanding….important for the development of cognitive skills such as language and language comprehension, experimentation and problem solving techniques.” Physical activities are associated with children’s social development such as collaboration, negotiation, confrontation, psychological health, moral understanding and management of conflicts. Also associated with cognitive skills development, comprehension and experimentation. *Direct relation between physical activities and interaction, Co-Operation, social ties, comfort level, engagement, values and norms.
4 Noschis, 1992 “Considered to be a significant aspect of play as a means of bringing children closer to the adult world and helping children to construct their own identity.” Outdoor activities construct personal identity as well as encouraging personal character, integration and interaction with adults. *Direct relation between physical activities and personal identity, interaction and group membership.
5 The National Playing Fields Association (NPFA), 2000 “assert the importance of play in the outdoor environment in providing opportunities for freedom, large-scale physical activities and different challenges …” Existence of urban open spaces allows feeling of freedom. *Direct relation between green infra-structure and personal identity and (active\passive) activities.
6 Opie and Opie, 1969 “On top of this is the experience of starting a game—gathering people to join in—which can in itself become a game” Group activities encourage feeling of membership while creating interaction and engagement opportunities. *Direct relation between activities and group membership, interaction and engagement.
7 Hart, 1979 “Hart investigated four areas of interaction with the environment: spatial activity; place knowledge; place values and feelings and place use. Underlying this research was a fundamental belief that children experience the landscape in a very personal way.” Children experience landscape in a personal way using activities to enhance their space knowledge, values and feelings toward the occupied space. *Direct relation between green infra-structure and activities, place attachment, values and norms, personal identity, memories and space image.
8 “Relationships with the children were further developed when Hart joined the children in the exploration of their local environment, to the extent that when interviewing Hart was treated as part of the children’s ‘gang’.” Sharing outdoor activities enhances group social ties and the feeling of belonging. *Direct relation between interaction and group membership, social ties friendship, comfort level and sense of safety.