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Table 1 About processes in brief

From: A comprehensive review on incremental deformation in rolling processes

Process Material Common uses Typical tooling\equipment required Challenges
Ring rolling -Metals and metal alloys depending on the purpose. -Railway tires [15, 16]
-Rockets
-Turbines [17]
-Pressure vessels [18]
-Gears
-Pipes [18]
-Bearings [17]
-The preparation of the workpiece includes shearing and flattening the billet, which was later punched to form a ring. The process requires a driven roll, idler roll, and two edging rolls, all of which control the diameter and thickness of the final ring product. -In hot rolling, the final grains and microstructure are not as tough as the cold cold-rolled rings.
-The outer surface of hot rolled structures required heat treatments for increasing strength and surface finishing techniques.
-Asymmetrical parts are very difficult to produce [19].
Thread/gear rolling -Stainless steel [20]
-Non-ferrous metal [21]
-Cast iron
-Carbon steel
-Alloy steel
-Gear manufacturing [22]
-Worm wheels [22]
-Screws [23]
-Bolts [24]
-Screw machines
-Flat and cylindrical die types
-Workpieces are placed and compressed against two or three hardened dies, which are rolled against the workpiece to imprint the thread/gear profile onto the workpiece. -Synchronizing the rolls
-Feed rate and penetration rate should be checked after every operation
-Gauging problems
-Mismatched helix angle which creates screw jacking
-Surface finishing at tooth surfaces
Shape rolling -Steel [25]
-Carbon steel
-Stainless steel
-Non-ferrous metal
-Alloy steel depending on the application [26]
-Bridges
-Railroads
-Roller coasters
-Home appliances
-Structural beams for constructions
-Architectural applications
-A strip of metal (workpiece) is passed through a series of rolls in different angles/positions to the workpiece, varying on the final cross-section profile is achieved. -Microstructure deformations are less refined at the flanges [27]
-Position of rolls should be in perfect alignment for production otherwise defects and further complications occur
Skew rolling -Alloys of titanium and steel [28]
-Aluminum [29]
-Nickel
-Magnesium [30]
-Springs
-Railway bars [31]
-Rods [30]
-Reinforcement products
-Grinding mill balls [32]
-Roll bars
-An input feed of metal stock is directed toward two specially designed skewed rollers, which roll in opposite directions. The wedges in the skew rollers help to cut the stock metal for creating metal balls. -No hollow parts can be formed
-Wear in the rollers cause voids in the final product [33]
-Rollers should be parallel
-The temperature of rolls should always be lesser than the feedstock [34]
-Point of contact between rollers should be avoided
Tube piercing -Stainless steel [35]
-Carbon steel
-Steel alloys [35, 36]
-Aluminum
-Aluminum alloys
-Nickel alloys
-Brass
-Titanium alloys [37]
-Pipes in automotive, and aerospace [38]
-Electrical and nuclear industries [39]
-Long input billets are pierced through plugs in the middle of two or three rollers with the presence of a guide wheel. The temperature of the process is quite high, as a lot of deformation takes place at the center when the plug pierces to make tubes. -Velocity and angles of the rollers should be carefully controlled [37]
-Internal cracks and voids [40]
-The plug should be extraordinarily strong and surface hardness should be high
-Guide rollers should be aligned and controlled properly so that there is no variable thickness in the tube.
Periodical straining rolling -Metallic alloys of aluminum and magnesium -Automotive
-Aviation
-Marine
-Wind energy industries
-First small, periodic rack rack-like groves are made on the metallic sheet by a worm gear-like grooved roll and then in the second stage, these groves are flattened using conventional work rolls. -Types of grooves must be carefully monitored.
-Final smooth surfaces can have problems in strain distribution.
-Changes in microstructural and texture gradients must be carefully studied.
Flat rolling -Steel [41]
-Stainless Steel [41]
–Aluminum [42]
-Brass
-Copper
-Refrigeration [43]
-Home electric appliances [43]
-Aircraft
-Subways
-Bullet train cars
-Working rolls are fed with the material having a rectangular cross-section. -Space between two rollers must be carefully maintained along the process [44].
-Roll slips can happen in certain conditions especially when thickness change is too large [44].
Corrugated flat rolling -Metal-based composites [45]
-Galvanized Iron
-Iron
-Rural and temporary military building setups to build rooftops
-Manufacturing wrought iron sheets
-With the use of a combination of corrugated roll and flat roll, the composite plate is rolled. Then in the next step, flattening of the resulting waved plate is done with the traditional flat roll. -It alters bending strength hence it must be keenly monitored.
-The two-dimensional strain distribution model for the initial corrugated rolling process highlighted severe plastic deformation [45]
Riblet rolling -Ti-6Al-4V [46] -Wind tunnel [46]
-Aircraft [46]
-Aviation
-Profiled rollers with a diameter ranging from 115 to 25 mm are grooved with a negative riblet geometry.
-The rollers are mounted on an axle and are rolled over the workpiece surface under the influence of a constant rolling force
-Producing a negative riblet structure on rollers is challenging [46]
-Effects of mispositioning of the riblet roller on the workpiece are critical.
-Roller angles must be precise [46].