Skip to main content

Table 5 Areas of application of CF massive MIMO

From: Application of cell-free massive MIMO in 5G and beyond 5G wireless networks: a survey

Ref. Areas of application Description Strengths Limitations
[68, 69] SWIPT Promising energy harvesting technology for an energy-limited environment Optimized achievable energy-rate trade-off and improved EE Adverse channel effects, reduced throughput
[62, 64, 123] Channel hardening In the regime of a massive number of antennas, fading channels become almost deterministic. This effect is referred to as channel hardening High SE and reliable performance Spatial correlation at the APs, pilot contamination and presence of line-of-sight (LoS) propagation
[66, 67, 77, 84, 124] Hardware efficiency Communication networks are generally affected by non-idealities under practical operational conditions. This inevitably degrades the system’s performance dramatically Economical transceivers Decrease in hardware qualities, adverse effect of HI at UE, and performance degradation owing to the processing power of APs
[53, 81, 125] Power control Intelligent distribution of transmitter power along various antennas to manage interference and guarantee maximized performance within the system Improved efficiency of wireless systems and improved throughput to all users Shadowing effects, multi-objective optimization problem, and the complexity of power allocation algorithm
[81, 126] Learning-based CF massive MIMO It encompasses an ML framework where deep layers enable learning from a large amount of data Robustness against pilot contamination and improved resource allocation Shadowing effects and increase in training time as the number of UEs grows large
[26, 127] Interference management Techniques employed to manage interference abounded in wireless networks Suppression of inter-cell interference Residual self-interference (RSI)
[128,129,130] NOMA An insightful technique in which multiple users are simultaneously served using the same time-frequency resource block Massive connectivity and attractive SE gains Imperfect SIC and pilot contamination
[80, 85] SE A vital performance metric considered in the design of wireless communication systems and expressed as the ratio of data rate to bandwidth Improved area throughput Spatial correlation
[37, 41, 78, 131, 132] EE An essential energy-saving technique geared toward reducing the total energy consumption in wireless systems Significant reduction in total power consumption improved radiated EE Power lows, the trade-off between EE and SE